How to Test Abrasion Resistance

Abrasion resistance is related to the service life of the product. It also affects our use experience and economic costs. Product quality is not only the pursuit of the manufacturing industry but also consumers’ expectations for quality of life. Abrasion resistance testing is the crucial link connecting this link.

This article will delve into how to test the abrasion resistance of products. It will provide manufacturers with guidance for improving product quality. We can better understand how the product performs during use through effective abrasion resistance testing. Let’s explore together how to test abrasion resistance through scientific means.

What is Abrasion Resistance

Abrasion resistance refers to the ability of a material to maintain its original properties under friction, wear, or other external forces. It describes a material’s ability to maintain its shape, structure, and properties when exposed to factors. Such as friction during contact with other surfaces. This property is critical for a variety of products. These include shoes, clothing, machine parts, vehicle tires, etc.

The level of abrasion resistance is related to the product’s service life and performance stability. In practical applications, some materials may lose their original properties due to frequent friction or abrasion. It can result in damage or reduced performance of the product. So, the abrasion resistance test has become an essential evaluation indicator. Especially for manufacturers and consumers when selecting products.

A variety of methods can test abrasion resistance. These include the use of professional testing equipment and experiments simulating real usage scenarios. It also observes the abrasion and tear of materials under certain conditions. These tests help check the durability of materials. It can give manufacturers clues to improve product quality. It also provides consumers with a basis for choosing high-quality products.

What is Abrasion Resistance

Abrasion Resistance Test Methods

The next section will explore how to test abrasion resistance or some effective abrasion testing methods. There are many ways to test abrasion resistance, often depending on the type of material and product being tested. Below are some standard abrasion resistance testing methods.

Method 1: Taber Abrasion Test

Taber abrasion test is a method used to test the abrasion resistance of materials. The American ASTM International Standards Organization developed this test method. There are many specific standard test methods. Such as ASTM D4060 and ASTM F1978. The Taber abrasion test tests the abrasion resistance of various materials. Such as coatings, plastics, rubber, textiles, leather, etc.


The Taber abrasion test uses rotating abrasive wheels to simulate abrasion on the material surface. These grinding heads may come in different materials and construction. The specific choice depends on the material being tested and the application.

Test Steps

  • Sample Preparation: Cut the material sample to be tested into the appropriate shape and size. It is then fixed to the sample holder of the Taber testing machine.
  • Set Test Parameters: Set the parameters required for the test. These include load, grinding head type rotation speed, etc.
  • Start The Test: Start the testing machine so that the grinding head contacts the material surface under a particular load and rotation speed. It is a process that simulates friction and abrasion.
  • Measuring Abrasion: Stop the test after a particular time or number of cycles and estimate the amount of abrasion on the material. It can usually be achieved by measuring the sample’s weight loss, abrasion depth, or other relevant indicators.
  • Data Analysis: Based on the test results, the abrasion resistance of the material can be evaluated. A smaller amount of abrasion indicates that the material has better abrasion resistance.

One of the advantages of the Taber abrasion test method is speed, repeatability, and standardization. It allows different laboratories and manufacturers to perform comparable tests. This testing method can check quality control, material selection, and research and development. It can ensure a material’s abrasion resistance meets specific needs and standards.

Method 2: Sliding Abrasion Test

Sliding abrasion testing is used to evaluate the abrasion resistance of material surfaces under sliding friction conditions. This type of testing usually involves bringing one material into direct contact with another surface. Slide in a parallel or nearly parallel manner under a particular load. This type of testing is designed to simulate the friction and abrasion to which a material is subjected in actual use. The following are the general principles and steps of sliding abrasion testing.

  • Sample Preparation: Cut a sample of the material to be tested into the appropriate shape and size, usually as a flat plate or disk. Treatments and coatings on the sample surface may also affect test results.
  • Set Test Parameters: Set the parameters required for the test, including load, sliding speed, and sliding distance. These parameters may be affected by specific testing standards or applications.
  • Specimen Fixation: Fix the specimen to the test equipment to ensure it can be loaded and slid on a flat surface during the test.
  • Start The Test: Start the test equipment so that the sample is in direct contact with another surface and begins sliding. Loads are applied to the sample via weights or other devices, simulating stresses in actual use.
  • End of Test: Stop the test within a specific test time or after the sliding distance reaches a predetermined value. At this time, the abrasion condition of the sample surface can be checked. Such as abrasion depth, surface morphology, etc.
  • Data Analysis: Conduct data analysis based on the test results to check the material’s abrasion resistance. Generally, samples with small abrasion depth say better abrasion resistance.

The sliding abrasion can test the performance of coating materials, metals, polymers, and composites. One of the advantages of this testing method is that it can simulate friction conditions in actual use. It provides information about how a material will perform under actual operating conditions. There may be some differences between different testing equipment and standards. The specific sliding abrasion test may thus vary depending on the standard used or the application’s requirements.

sliding abrasion test

Method 3: Abrasion Testing Machine

An abrasive wear test machine is a special equipment used to test the surface abrasion properties of materials. The device can simulate the behavior of materials in friction and wear environments. It evaluates its wear resistance. Abrasive wear test machines can use different testing methods and devices. It depends on the properties of the material being tested and the area of application. Generally speaking, the essential work of an abrasion testing machine includes the following aspects.

  • Sample Preparation: Samples of materials to be tested are usually made into specified shapes and sizes. It allows for easy installation and testing on the testing machine.
  • Set Test Parameters: Users must set a series of test parameters. These include test load, sliding speed, and test cycle. The parameters will simulate the abrasion conditions in actual use.
  • Mounting The Sample: The sample is secured to the testing machine, usually by clamps or other devices. It is fast to ensure stable load and friction during testing.
  • Perform The Test: Start the testing machine and bring the sample into direct contact with the friction head or surface. Samples experience friction and abrasion under specific load and movement conditions.
  • Measure And Record: Stop testing at specific test cycles or conditions. Measure the sample’s abrasion depth, weight loss, or other abrasion-related indicators. These data are used to check the abrasion resistance of the material.

Different types of abrasive wear test machines can simulate other abrasion mechanisms. For example, sliding abrasion, rolling abrasion, and lateral rolling wear. Standard abrasion testing machines include ball-disk, roller abrasion testing machines, sleeve wear testing machines, etc.

Method 4: Abrasion Resistance Field Testing

Abrasion resistance field testing is to place the product in a real-use environment. Observe and measure its wear resistance under actual conditions. It differs from standardized testing methods within laboratories. Abrasion resistance field testing can simulate the various wear and environmental conditions. Especially for a product that may face in daily use.

This testing method is suitable for a variety of products. These include but are not limited to footwear, apparel, automotive parts, and construction materials. By placing the product in an actual use environment, you can get a more realistic understanding of how the product will perform over long periods of use. These include abrasion resistance, durability, and appearance retention. Field testing of abrasion resistance involves the following steps.

  • Accurate Environment Simulation: Placing the product in its actual usage scenario. Such as outdoors, roads, and offices. It helps simulate realistic wear conditions and environmental factors.
  • Set Testing Criteria: Define the timing, frequency, and metrics to observe and measure for testing. Ensure test results provide helpful information about product performance.
  • Regular Observation And Measurement: During the test process, observe the degree of wear, color changes, and shape changes of the product. This can be done through visual inspection, photography, or other measurement tools.
  • Data Recording And Analysis: Record and analyze data observed during testing. Such as the extent of wear, surface changes, and performance loss. These data can test the wear resistance of the product and guide product improvement.
  • Improve Designs And Materials: Adjust product design, material selection, or manufacturing processes based on results from field testing. It improves the wear resistance and service life of the product.

The advantage of field testing of abrasion resistance is that it enables a more comprehensive and realistic assessment of a product’s performance. However, this testing method can take a long time. It can be affected by environmental changes. So, field testing is often combined with laboratory testing. It can get more comprehensive information on product performance.

abrasion resistance test

Results of Abrasion Resistance Testing

The results of abrasion resistance testing are usually presented as a series of indicators and data. These data provide detailed information about how a material or product performs in friction and wear environments. Here are some expected abrasion test results and their interpretations.

  • Abrasion Volume: Abrasion volume data can be obtained by measuring the weight lost by the material during the test or the depth of wear. The smaller the amount of wear, the better the material’s wear resistance.
  • Abrasion Rate: Abrasion rate refers to the amount of wear on the material surface per unit of time. A lower wear rate indicates a material’s more remarkable ability to withstand wear under the same conditions.
  • Abrasion Resistance Index: The abrasion resistance index is an index that considers the wear performance of materials. It is usually compared to a standard sample. A high wear index indicates that the material is relatively wear-resistant.
  • Friction Coefficient: This parameter represents the sliding resistance of the material surface under friction conditions. A lower coefficient of friction usually helps reduce friction losses.
  • Surface Morphology Analysis: We can observe and analyze the microstructure, cracks, and wear marks on the material surface. This way, information on wear mechanisms and processes can be obtained.
  • Field Test Results: In field tests, the degree of abrasion, color changes, and appearance damage of the product in the actual use environment can be observed. These intuitive results can be closer to actual usage conditions.

These results allow manufacturers and researchers to test the material’s performance. They can take measures to improve product design, material selection, or production processes. It will improve the wear resistance of the product.


These methods provide us with a unique perspective to test the performance of materials. Technology will continue to advance in the future. Abrasion resistance testing methods will continue to be developed and improved.

We look forward to more advanced testing technologies and innovative abrasive testing methods. It can provide more accurate evaluations of product durability and performance.